The 29-year-old Woakes came into bat after England had slumped to 131 for five in reply on Saturday's third day, with a top-order collapse threatening to undo their bowlers' good work.
The disastrous outing on Day 2 left many Indian fans fuming it led to many of them venting their frustrations towards the players on social media.
Having been bowled out for 107 on day two, India will have harboured hopes of at least limiting England's lead when they reduced the hosts to 89-4 at lunch.
England captain Joe Root confirmed on Wednesday that Ollie Pope, a 20-year-old Surrey batsman, would make his Test debut in place of the dropped Dawid Malan. Five balls later Jennings " s fellow left-handed opener Alastair Cook (21) was out as well, caught behind off a superb Sharma delivery from around the wicket that squared him up and seamed away before finding the outside edge.
It was the first time a whole day's Test play in England had been lost to bad weather since August 24, 2013 when the fourth day of the fifth Ashes clash at The Oval was abandoned without a ball bowled.
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First, though, it was Jos Buttler who decided offence was his best option, hitting four boundaries as England surpassed India's first-innings total and took the lead.
Woakes joined Bairstow and, while Shami and Sharma were getting the ball to reverse swing and there was some uneven bounce, the England pair negotiated their way through the tricky spells before beginning to accelerate and bringing up their 100 partnership in the first over of the evening session.
But Woakes, who had scored nine previous first-class hundreds, and Jonny Bairstow (93) turned the tide during a stand of 189.
The shot that brought up his century - a pull over mid-wicket for three - was a rare mistimed stroke.
It may not be long though before their attention - and England's - turns to bowling and trying to force through a win to put their side 2-0 up in the series. But England " s batting has often proved fallible recently.